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Autorizzazione del Tribunale di Torino n. Iscrizione nel registro nazionale della stampa di cui alla legge n. Pubblicazione periodica trimestra le - Poste Italiane S. Patlar S. Moghadasi M. Evaluation of vertical ground reaction forces in three different judo hip throwing techniques in novice and advanced Greek athletes Zaggelidis G. Stafisso B. The overarching aim of the recommendations is the ty dolla segno perdita di peso prevention of cardiorespiratory, metabolic, and musculoskeletal illnesses, with a view to inform policies in national health priorities.
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This in response to the increasingly sedentary lifestyle of Western societies in which daily energy expenditure has declined to the basal metabolic level but dietary caloric intake has remained unchanged. The WHO recommendations go further to suggest that aerobic physical exercise is to be preferred and need not be intense: already 30 minutes of daily exercise walking, swimming, cycling, etc.
Tali raccomandazioni sono orientate alla prevenzione primaria delle malattie cardio-respiratorie, metaboliche, muscolo-scheletriche, tumorali, ecc. Lo stile di vita delle società occidentali è caratterizzato da un progressivo aumento della sedentarietà con riduzione della spesa energetica giornaliera al solo metabolismo basale e questo a dispetto dei consumi alimentari quasi invariati come quantità.
WHO Da Physical activity and health in Europe: evidence for action. OMS, 2 The rationale is that regular physical activity leads to organic modifications and adaptations that enhance body functions.
Even against a background of a growing incidence of allergy worldwide, highest in the developed countries, such beliefs are disproved by clinical evidence and pose a relational and psychological barrier to engaging in sports, particularly among the young.
What epidemiological data tell us about 5 in 1 dimagrante competitive athletes is that, when adequately managed, dimagrimento owings mills md, and bronchial asthma in particular, does not restrict sports participation. Two forms are distinguished: seasonal rhinitis caused by pollens and fungi released into the air during certain periods of the year; and perennial rhinitis caused by exposure to indoor allergens in homes, gyms, 2 Questo dipende sostanzialmente dal fatto che una vita fisicamente attiva induce modificazioni e adattamenti organici che risultano positivi dal punto di vista della funzionalità di organi ed apparati.
È opinione comune che le malattie allergiche, in particolar modo quelle caratterizzate da un interessamento delle alte e basse vie respiratorie rinite ed asma bronchialerappresentino un fattore limitante la pratica sportiva. Seasonal dimagrimento owings mills md can be further subdivided into winter or pre-spring forms caused by allergizing pollens Betulaceae, Corylaceae, Cupressaceae, Pinaceae and spring or spring-summer pollens Graminaceae, Plantaginaceae, Urticaceae, composites.
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Bronchial asthma is a chronic airway inflammation characterized by the contraction of the bronchial smooth muscles, which restricts air flow reversible spontaneously or following therapy and augments sensitivity of the tracheobronchial tree to external stimuli. Etiologically, asthma is classified as either extrinsic, when an immune mechanism induced by allergens is demonstrated, or intrinsic, when an attack is not triggered by allergens but rather by exposure to physical agents e.
The syndrome is characterized by paroxysmal attacks of dyspnea, coughing and wheezing which can suddenly appear in an otherwise healthy state or have a gradual onset preceded by viral respiratory syndromes or rhinitis. Diagnosis is established with the use of in vivo prick test and in vitro tests following accurate history taking and physical examination. Skin reaction testing prick test involves the use of commercially available extracts of common allergens weed and tree pollen, molds, dust mites, animal dander.
However, such tests may produce false positive results: skin hypersensitivity positive dermographism ; wheal responses close to one another axonic reflex ; highly concentrated or contaminated extracts. In uncertain results discordance between skin reaction and specific IgE dosing or between these and the clinical historynasal, bronchial or conjunctival Vol.
Le riniti stagionali possono essere inoltre classificate in invernali o pre-primaverili nel caso in cui i pollini allergizzanti facciano parte delle betullacee, delle corilacee, delle cupressacee e delle pinacee e in primaverili o primaverili-estive nel caso dimagrimento owings mills md pollini appartenenti alle graminacee, alle plantaginacee, alle urticacee e alle composite.
Il quadro clinico è caratterizzato da crisi parossistiche di dispnea, tosse e sibili che possono insorgere repentinamente in pieno benessere oppure in modo graduale precedute o meno da sindromi respiratorie virali o manifestazioni rinitiche. Exercise-induced asthma was first described by Floyer in 4 but it was not until the late 20th century that this correlation was investigated by the major scientific associations.
Exercise-induced bronchospasm is the critical point in the relationship between asthma and physical activity. The effect of exercise on airway diameter varies in health persons and in those with asthma. Airway resistance typically decreases with increasing respiratory rate but it may also be altered.
For instance, increased oral respiration during intense physical activity reduces the filtering, humidifying and warming effect of nasal respiration on air intake. Subsequently, the lower humidity of the inhaled air provokes a nervous reflex that stimulates the release of bronchial inflammatory cells, resulting in bronchoconstriction. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in an asthmatic person spontaneously resolves with minutes.
Increased pulmonary ventilation during physical exercise reduces the temperature of the tracheal and bronchial epithelium, which returns to baseline levels after exercise is discontinued. In predisposed persons, the changes in bronchial humidity and temperature are thought to be responsible for changes in cellular osmosis, with the passage of fluid from the capillaries to the bronchi, the formation of edema, and bronchial constriction.
Respiratory function may improve dimagrimento owings mills md the first minutes of exercise, followed by a gradual reduction that persists for minutes after exercise has ceased.
The three exercise-related factors that can trigger a bronchospasm are: aerobic exercise less often in anaerobic exercise ; exercise intensity dimagrimento owings mills md duration. These factors may be influenced by the environmental allergenic load, weather conditions, air pollution, among others.
Persons with intermittent or mild persistent bronchial asthma can, by taking appropriate precautions, participate in sports; those with moderate persistent asthma should follow an adequate drug therapy that reduces airway inflammation; and those with severe persistent asthma should not engage in sports. Asthmatics engaging in sports should follow the rules for preventing a bronchospasm: —— do not practice sports in a cold, dry environment; —— do not practice sports during daytime hours when the pollen count is high; —— do not practice sports dimagrimento owings mills md suffering from an airway inflammation; —— take prophylactic medications before starting physical activity and have such medications readily at hand; —— warm up for at least 20 to dimagrimento owings mills md minutes before starting physical activity; —— make sure fluid intake is adequate during exercise; —— inform the family doctor and trainer of the asthma condition and the intention to engage in sports; —— if flare-ups occur, discontinue exercise and inform the family doctor of the episode as Vol.
In allergic reactions, corticosteroids lower antibody production by inhibiting protein synthesisreduce the number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils, and inhibit the formation, deposit and release of histamine by the basophils.
A scheme for asthma classification according to disease severity Figure 2 and treatment Figure 3 according to the Global Initiative for Asthma GINA guidelines is reported below. The treatment induces a switch from phenotype Th2 to Th1, stimulating a prevalently Th1 response.
Its efficacy has been widely demonstrated, with an improvement in clinical dimagrimento owings mills md reduction of symptoms and reduction in use of medications. Issuing a sports fitness certification will depend on the presence or absence of flare-ups of asthma symptoms and the type of sports, under the strict exclusion of underwater, high altitude, and motor sports.
While engaging in sports does not per se improve asthma, when practiced as supervised, physical activity exerts a bronchodilatory effect due to the release of catecholamines and by strengthening the respiratory muscles.
Unfortunately, many persons affected with an allergy are reluctant to participate in sports out of dimagrimento owings mills md of experiencing flare-up episodes due to hyperventilation or exposure to environmental aeroallergens. Such subjects should be properly informed of the benefits of physical exercise and that the type of sports should be selected according to individual preferences and the health advantages to be gained.
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For example, the less intense ventilation and humid air involved in swimming reduce the likelihood of an exerciseinduced asthma attack. Sports that are usually better tolerated and therefore advisable include swimming, volleyball or race-walking run over longer stretches at a steady pace Table I. Power and dexterity sports such as weightlifting, fencing and wrestling have a low risk of inducing an asthma attack as they require bursts of intense exertion with a minor increase Vol.
La sua efficacia è stata ampiamente documentata comportando un miglioramento del quadro clinico regressione della sintomatologia e riduzione del consumo di farmaci. Figura 2. Figura 3.
Like race-walking, cross-country skiing involves numerous muscle groups dimagrimento owings mills md harmonious, rhythmic movement and coordinated breathing. Among light athletics, the and meter sprint, as well as high and long jump are well tolerated because they are performed typically in apnea within an extremely short time, and therefore require less breathing effort. Soccer, basketball, handball, skate and field hockey involve short periods of running while on the ball and can be advised with the suitable choice of player position.
Ice hockey carries the risk of exposure to cold air. Table I lists types of sports that can be recommended or not.
Another disorder associated with movement is so-called exercise-induced anaphylaxis, first described by Sheffer in The symptoms have their onset typically about 20 minutes after the beginning of physical activity and persist for 3 to 4 hours, up to 72 hours, followed by a marked sense of asthenia, headache and diffuse warmth which may continue up to 72 hours after the onset of the acute episode. Three forms of exercise-induced anaphylaxis are distinguished: food-independent; food-dependent; and food-dependent associated with the intake of a specific food.
The last prevede un esercizio regolare anche se prolungato Tabella I. Integratore bruciagrassi tutto naturale sport di potenza e destrezza, come il sollevamento pesi, la lotta e la scherma, presentano un basso rischio asmatico in quanto comportano sforzi intensi ma di breve durata e con scarso incremento della ventilazione. Lo sci di fondo, come la marcia, ha la caratteristica di impegnare vaste masse muscolari in un movimento armonico e ritmico, coordinato con gli atti respiratori.
Nella Tabella I sono riassunti dimagrimento owings mills md sport da consigliare o meno a soggetti asmatici. Questa patologia è caratterizzata dalla comparsa di prurito con eritema e orticaria, associato ad angioedema, sintomi gastrointestinali o laringei a seconda dei casi, fino al quadro di shock conclamato.
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Tabella I. This is corroborated by the demonstration of: —— significantly higher serum histamine levels at baseline and after stress testing than in healthy controls;13 —— increased triptase and histamine levels during an acute episode;14 —— features of mast cell degranulation in skin biopsies taken after physical activity. Therapy is like that normally instituted for treating anaphylaxis and involves the administration of adrenaline and antihistamines.
Exercise-induced anaphylaxis can be caused by any type of physical activity, from basketball to dancing and tennis; however, North American studies have reported a higher prevalence among runners perhaps because jogging is so widely practiced in the United States.
Since food intake has been reported as a triggering factor also in delayed anaphylaxis, athletes should wait at least 4 hours, or up to 6 hours in some cases, before undertaking physical activity. Drugs which have been shown not to 10 simo di 72 ore. Altri fattori favorenti la sindrome sono i farmaci antiinfiammmatori non steroidei FANSi fattori climatici e le variazioni ormonali.
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È stata comunque anche segnalata la comparsa di tale quadro clinico durante altre pratiche sportive, come la corsa, il salto in alto, il calcio 15, il tennis e altre attività aerobiche Since the WADA list is revised annually and goes into effect as of 1 January every year, it should be checked for possible changes. Glucosteroids: all glucosteroids are prohibited when administered via the oral, endovenous, intramuscular or rectal route.
Ach, ich wünschte jede Frauen würden sooo an mir "hängen" ; :-D Das Material ist auf dem neuesten Stand, top gepflegt und reichlich vorhanden Wenn man jetzt denkt, das hört sich ja sehr gut an dem kann ich nur sagen
Farmaci che invece non mostrano efficacia nella prevenzione di tale patologia sono gli anticolinergici, i beta-adrenergici e gli inibitori delle fosfodiesterasi, mentre il disodiocromoglicato somministrato per via orale o inalatoria si è dimostrato utile in tal senso Betaagonisti e glucocorticosteroidi sono compresi, infatti, nella lista delle sostanze e metodi proibiti WADA Listarispettivamente come classi S.
La Lista è soggetta a revisione annuale, entra in vigore il 1 gennaio e, pertanto, è opportuno riscontrare le eventuali modifiche appropriate. Glucocorticosteroidi: sono proibiti tutti i glucocorticosteroidi quando somministrati per via orale, endovenosa, intramuscolare e rettale.
Athletes outside these categories must, under the provisions of antidoping sports regulations, present in lieu of the TUE a Therapeutic Intervention Notification TIN to the CONI antidoping office; the request will then be submitted for medico-pharmacological evaluation by the Therapeutic Use Exemption Committee.
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In accordance with these regulations, therapy should be initiated and the athlete provided with medical records documenting the diagnosis, plus a copy of dimagrimento owings mills md clinical tests performed. In case of antidoping control, athletes receiving medications containing substances not subject to these procedures must state at blood withdrawal that they are under therapy.
Am J Prev Med ; Physical activity and health in Europe: evidence for action. Self-reported asthma and allergies in top athletes compared to the general population - results of the German part of the GA2LEN-Olympic study Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol ; Treatise of asthma.
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London: R. Wilkens and W. Innis; Publication n. Am Fam Physician ; Pathogenesis, prevalence, diagnosis, and management of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: a practice parameter.
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Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ;S Aspetti tossicologico-forensi del doping nello sport. Medicina Legale — Quaderni Camerti ;
Visualizzazioni Transcript 1 Hanno collaborato a questo numero: G. Benedek, L.